November 27, 2020


Daniel Markovitz at the 2020 Library of Congress National Book Festival (video posted to the Library’s YouTube channel on November 27, 2020):

“By 2000, the rich-poor [school achievement] gap had gotten bigger than the white-black gap was in 1954. Now, 1954 was the year Brown v. Board of Education was decided. So economic inequality in America today produces a bigger difference in childhood school achievement than American apartheid did at mid-century. … Recently somebody* calculated that Princeton University’s tax exempt status, the fact that its endowment grows without being taxed and the fact that its alumni can make tax-deductible donations, amounts to a public subsidy for Princeton kids of a hundred thousand dollars per pupil per year. … Now remember, there are more kids at Princeton from the top one percent of the [income] distribution than from the entire bottom sixty percent. [Meanwhile] the state university of New Jersey … Rutgers gets about $12,500 of public money per student per year. Essex County Community College [in Newark] gets about $2,500 of public money per student per year. So right now, our society is giving public money to the rich kids at Princeton that is forty times as much per pupil per year as the public money it gives to the working and middle class kids at Essex County Community College.”

*Jorge Klor de Alva and Mark Schneider, “Rich Schools, Poor Students,” 2015. The numbers in their report (in Table 1) were slightly more extreme: $105,000 for Princeton and $2,400 for Essex County College.


NOAA-ESRL/Scripps (“In-situ CO2 Data”):
November 27, 2020, CO2 414.19 ppm
November 27, 2019, CO2 410.58 ppm
November 27, 2018, CO2 408.49 ppm
November 27, 2017, CO2 406.34 ppm
November 27, 2016, CO2 404.94 ppm
November 27, 2015, CO2 400.14 ppm
November 27, 2014, CO2 398.01 ppm
November 27, 2013, CO2 395.68 ppm
November 27, 2012, CO2 394.46 ppm
November 27, 2011, CO2 391.36 ppm
November 27, 2010, CO2 389.62 ppm
November 27, 2000, CO2 368.54 ppm
November 27, 1992, CO2 354.73 ppm (year of UNFCCC)
November 27, 1990, CO2 353.26 ppm
November 27, 1980, CO2 337.43 ppm
November 27, 1970, CO2 324.90 ppm

Email corrections/comments to yokoyama10[at]gmail[dot]com